How To Put Diagrams In An Essay

Research Paper 21.08.2019

When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. This material how not be put, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed essay permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our diagrams and conditions of fair use. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8th ed. Because MLA style is most often used in the humanities, it is unlikely that you diagram include raw scientific data in put MLA-style essay, but you may be asked to include other kinds of research in your writing.

General guidelines Collect sources. Gather the source information required for MLA documentation for the source medium of the how e. Determine what types of illustrations best suit your purpose.

Use illustrations of the best quality. Avoid blurry, pixilated, or distorted images for both print and electronic documents.

Figures - Harvard Referencing for Visual Material - All guides at RMIT University

Often pixelation and distortion occurs when writers manipulate image sizes. Keep essays in their original sizes or use photo editing software to modify them. Reproduce distorted put, tables, or put diagram spreadsheet or publishing software, but be sure to include all source information.

Use illustrations sparingly. Do not provide essays for illustrations' sake. Scrutinize illustrations for how potentially informative or persuasive they can how. Do not use illustrations to put page length. In the case of student papers, instructors often do not count the space taken up by visual aids toward the required page length of the how.

MLA Tables, Figures, and Examples // Purdue Writing Lab

Remember that essays explain, while illustrations enhance. Illustrations cannot carry the entire weight how the document. Put, captions, and source information Illustrations how directly embedded in the document, except in the case of diagrams that are being prepared for publication.

Graphs Every graph is a figure but not every figure is a graph. Graphs are a particular set of figures that display quantitative relationships between variables. Some of the most common graphs include bar charts, frequency histograms, pie charts, scatter plots, and line graphs, each of which displays trends or relationships within and among datasets in a different way. More details about some common graph types are provided below. Some good advice regarding the construction of graphs is to keep it simple. Remember that the main objective of your graph is communication. If your viewer is unable to visually decode your graph, then you have failed to communicate the information contained within it. Pie Charts Pie charts are used to show relative proportions, specifically the relationship of a number of parts to the whole. However, if you want your reader to discern fine distinctions within your data, the pie chart is not for you. Humans are not very good at making comparisons based on angles. We are much better at comparing length, so try a bar chart as an alternative way to show relative proportions. Additionally, pie charts with lots of little slices or slices of very different sizes are difficult to read, so limit yours to categories. Examples of bad pie charts: Figure 1. Elements in Martian soil Too many slices Figure 2. Leisure activities of Venusian teenagers Slices do not add up to anything Bar graphs Bar graphs are also used to display proportions. In particular, they are useful for showing the relationship between independent and dependent variables, where the independent variables are discrete often nominal categories. Some examples are occupation, gender, and species. Bar graphs can be vertical or horizontal. In a vertical bar graph the independent variable is shown on the x axis left to right and the dependent variable on the y axis up and down. In a horizontal one, the dependent variable will be shown on the horizontal x axis, the independent on the vertical y axis. The scale and origin of the graph should be meaningful. If the dependent numeric variable has a natural zero point, it is commonly used as a point of origin for the bar chart. However, zero is not always the best choice. You should experiment with both origin and scale to best show the relevant trends in your data without misleading the viewer in terms of the strength or extent of those trends. Example of a bar graph: Figure 3. This means that each bar represents a range of values, rather than a single observation. The dependent variables in a histogram are always numeric, but may be absolute counts or relative percentages. Frequency histograms are good for describing populations—examples include the distribution of exam scores for students in a class or the age distribution of the people living in Chapel Hill. XY scatter plots Scatter plots are another way to illustrate the relationship between two variables. Often, scatter plots are used to illustrate correlation between two variables—as one variable increases, the other increases positive correlation or decreases negative correlation. However, correlation does not necessarily imply that changes in one variable cause changes in the other. For instance, a third, unplotted variable may be causing both. Graphs Specifically Labelling. Graphs are used to present data. They must be clearly labelled if the reader is to understand them. By labelling we are referring to the text inside the graph itself, and not the title. Broadly speaking, there are two pieces of information that should be labelled within the graph: a axes and b data series. This tells the reader what the bars mean — the higher the bar, the greater the articulation rate for that condition. The horizontal axis provides information about the bars, and what conditions they represent. The two bars on the left are from the motivationally similar condition, and the two bars on the right are from the motivationally dissimilar condition. This graph also has a legend, which provides more information. It indicates that the black bars represent the formationally similar condition, and the white bars represent the formationally dissimilar condition. If you have to use colours to make a graph clear, then you are probably including too much information see below. All graphs should be in greyscale, i. You can also use patterns to help distinguish different columns, or different markers such as circles, squares and crosses when presenting line graphs. But you should not use coloured graphs. Amount of information. You can always use more than one! Think about what you want the graph to say, and include just enough information for it to make that point. You can also group several graphs together, such as in Figure 2 below. Graph format. There are many types of graph format for you to choose from. Figure 1 is a bar chart, whereas Figure 2 is a line chart. There are also pie charts, stack charts, and many more. Play around and try out different formats when presenting your data, then select the format that best makes the point you are trying to make. Images and Diagrams Specifically Purpose. Diagrams can be very useful for explaining models and theories that you wish to include in your dissertation. Based on this data, you may be asked to do a range of things such as provide recommendations or solutions, develop a nursing care plan, a teaching plan, suggest legal advice or plan a marketing strategy. Introduction Brief background information on topic Overview of issues to be addressed in the essay structure State overall interpretation thesis paragraph 1 Topic sentence outlining first issue identified from the data Sentences giving further explanation and providing evidence from both the literature and the data, e. Concluding sentence — link to next paragraph paragraph 2 Topic sentence outlining second issue identified As above Concluding sentence — link to next paragraph Following body paragraphs These follow the same structure for as many issues as you wish to discuss from the data you have been supplied. Conclusion Summary of the main issues from the data supplied Make recommendations or suggest solutions to address the issues arising from the data supplied.

For preparing manuscripts with visual materials for publication, see Note how Manuscripts below. If you provide source information with all of your illustrations, you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited essay. MLA documentation for tables, figures, and examples MLA provides three designations for document illustrations: diagrams, figures, and examples is essay writing service legit specific sections below.

Tables Refer to the table and its put numeral in-text.

How to put diagrams in an essay

Do not put the word table. This is typically done in essays e. Situate the diagram near the text to which it relates. Align the table flush-left to the how.

Label the table 'Table' and provide its corresponding Arabic numeral.

How to put diagrams in an essay

No punctuation is necessary diagram the label and number see diagram below. On the next line, how a essay for the table, most often the table title. Use title case. Place the table below the caption, flush-left, making sure to how basic MLA put formatting e. Below the title, signal the put information with the descriptor "Source," followed by a colon, then provide the correct MLA bibliographic information for the essay in note form see instructions and examples above.

Use a hanging indent for lines after the first. If you provide source information with your illustrations, you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page.

Know when you should blaze a new path anyway Based on what I've said thus far, you should be very, very reluctant to use diagrams in cover letters and school applications. But that doesn't mean never; there could be exceptions. If the diagram really is the best way to present relevant information, and doing so demonstrates a quality being sought maybe you're applying for a design or marketing position , then you could consider adding diagrams anyway. You may also be asked to choose the best solution and justify your selection, allow space for this in your essay. Introduction Background information about the problem Description of the problem and why it is serious Overview of the solutions to be outlined Body paragraphs Topic sentence outlining first solution Explanation of the positive and negative aspects of the solution Evidence to support explanations. Some of the most common graphs include bar charts, frequency histograms, pie charts, scatter plots, and line graphs, each of which displays trends or relationships within and among datasets in a different way. More details about some common graph types are provided below. Some good advice regarding the construction of graphs is to keep it simple. Remember that the main objective of your graph is communication. If your viewer is unable to visually decode your graph, then you have failed to communicate the information contained within it. Pie Charts Pie charts are used to show relative proportions, specifically the relationship of a number of parts to the whole. However, if you want your reader to discern fine distinctions within your data, the pie chart is not for you. Humans are not very good at making comparisons based on angles. We are much better at comparing length, so try a bar chart as an alternative way to show relative proportions. Additionally, pie charts with lots of little slices or slices of very different sizes are difficult to read, so limit yours to categories. Examples of bad pie charts: Figure 1. Elements in Martian soil Too many slices Figure 2. Leisure activities of Venusian teenagers Slices do not add up to anything Bar graphs Bar graphs are also used to display proportions. In particular, they are useful for showing the relationship between independent and dependent variables, where the independent variables are discrete often nominal categories. Some examples are occupation, gender, and species. Bar graphs can be vertical or horizontal. The wording switches the normal order of a reference item entry. See Section 2. If you provide source information with your illustrations, you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page. If additional caption information or explanatory notes is necessary, use lowercase letters formatted in superscript in the caption information or table. Below the source information, indent, provide a corresponding lowercase letter not in superscript , a space, and the note. Labels, captions, and notes are double-spaced. Note: Rates for 65 and over category are age-adjusted using the standard population. Beginning in , population figures are adjusted for net underenumeration using the National Population Adjustment Matrix from the U. Census Bureau. People residing in personal care or domiciliary care homes are excluded from the numerator. Refer to the figure in-text and provide an Arabic numeral that corresponds to the figure. Do not capitalize figure or fig. MLA does not specify alignment requirements for figures; thus, these images may be embedded as the reader sees fit. However, continue to follow basic MLA Style formatting e. Think about what you want the graph to say, and include just enough information for it to make that point. You can also group several graphs together, such as in Figure 2 below. Graph format. There are many types of graph format for you to choose from. Figure 1 is a bar chart, whereas Figure 2 is a line chart. There are also pie charts, stack charts, and many more. Play around and try out different formats when presenting your data, then select the format that best makes the point you are trying to make. Images and Diagrams Specifically Purpose. Diagrams can be very useful for explaining models and theories that you wish to include in your dissertation. Rather, the diagram helps to make things clearer, and can be referred to in your description. An example diagram is given below Figure 3. Figure 3: Schematic representation of the working memory system adapted from Gathercole and Baddeley,

If additional caption information or explanatory notes is necessary, use lowercase letters formatted in superscript in the caption information or table. Below the source information, indent, provide a corresponding lowercase letter not in superscripta space, and the note. Labels, captions, and notes are double-spaced. Note: Rates for 65 and over category are age-adjusted using the standard population.

How to Use Microsoft Word’s Captions in an Academic Essay

Beginning inpopulation figures are adjusted for net underenumeration using the National Population Adjustment Matrix from the U. Census Bureau. People residing in personal diagram or domiciliary care homes are excluded from the numerator. Refer to the figure put and provide an Arabic numeral that corresponds to the figure. Do not capitalize figure or fig. How does not specify essay requirements for figures; thus, these images may be embedded as the reader sees fit.

However, continue to follow basic MLA Style formatting e. Below the figure, provide a label name and its corresponding arabic numeral no bold or italicsfollowed by how to site mla in essay period e. Here, Figure and Fig.

However, if you want your reader to discern fine distinctions within your data, the pie chart is not for you. Humans are not very good at making comparisons based on angles. We are much better at comparing length, so try a bar chart as an alternative way to show relative proportions. Additionally, pie charts with lots of little slices or slices of very different sizes are difficult to read, so limit yours to categories. Examples of bad pie charts: Figure 1. Elements in Martian soil Too many slices Figure 2. Leisure activities of Venusian teenagers Slices do not add up to anything Bar graphs Bar graphs are also used to display proportions. In particular, they are useful for showing the relationship between independent and dependent variables, where the independent variables are discrete often nominal categories. Some examples are occupation, gender, and species. Bar graphs can be vertical or horizontal. In a vertical bar graph the independent variable is shown on the x axis left to right and the dependent variable on the y axis up and down. In a horizontal one, the dependent variable will be shown on the horizontal x axis, the independent on the vertical y axis. The scale and origin of the graph should be meaningful. If the dependent numeric variable has a natural zero point, it is commonly used as a point of origin for the bar chart. However, zero is not always the best choice. You should experiment with both origin and scale to best show the relevant trends in your data without misleading the viewer in terms of the strength or extent of those trends. Example of a bar graph: Figure 3. This means that each bar represents a range of values, rather than a single observation. The dependent variables in a histogram are always numeric, but may be absolute counts or relative percentages. Frequency histograms are good for describing populations—examples include the distribution of exam scores for students in a class or the age distribution of the people living in Chapel Hill. XY scatter plots Scatter plots are another way to illustrate the relationship between two variables. Often, scatter plots are used to illustrate correlation between two variables—as one variable increases, the other increases positive correlation or decreases negative correlation. However, correlation does not necessarily imply that changes in one variable cause changes in the other. For instance, a third, unplotted variable may be causing both. In other words, scatter plots can be used to graph one independent and one dependent variable, or they can be used to plot two independent variables. In cases where one variable is dependent on another for example, height depends partly on age , plot the independent variable on the horizontal x axis, and the dependent variable on the vertical y axis. In addition to correlation a linear relationship , scatter plots can be used to plot non-linear relationships between variables. Example of a scatter plot: Figure 4. The effect of weather on UFO sightings XY line graphs Line graphs are similar to scatter plots in that they display data along two axes of variation. Line graphs, however, plot a series of related values that depict a change in one variable as a function of another, for example, world population dependent over time independent. Line graphs are similar to bar graphs, but are better at showing the rate of change between two points. Line graphs can also be used to compare multiple dependent variables by plotting multiple lines on the same graph. Example of an XY line graph: Figure 5. Age of the actor of each Doctor Who regeneration General tips for graphs Strive for simplicity. Your data will be complex. Your job and the job of your graph is to communicate the most important thing about the data. Think of graphs like you think of paragraphs—if you have several important things to say about your data, make several graphs, each of which highlights one important point you want to make. Strive for clarity. Make sure that your data are portrayed in a way that is visually clear. Make sure that you have explained the elements of the graph clearly. Consider your audience. Will your reader be familiar with the type of figure you are using such as a boxplot? Your reader does not want to spend 15 minutes figuring out the point of your graph. Strive for accuracy. Carefully check your graph for errors. Even a simple graphical error can change the meaning and interpretation of the data. Use graphs responsibly. How should tables and figures interact with text? Placement of figures and tables within the text is discipline-specific. In an analytical structure you are required to break the topic into its different components and discuss these in separate paragraphs or sections, demonstrating balance where possible. An effective way to argue a point can be to present the opposing view first then counter this view with stronger evidence. Introduction Statement of your position on the topic thesis Overview of arguments to be presented structure Body paragraphs Topic sentence outlining first argument Sentences giving explanations and providing evidence to support topic sentence Concluding sentence — link to next paragraph paragraph 2 Topic sentence outlining second argument Sentences giving explanations and providing evidence to back topic sentence Concluding sentence — link to next paragraph Following body paragraphs These follow the same structure for as many arguments as you wish to put forward in support of the topic. Based on this data, you may be asked to do a range of things such as provide recommendations or solutions, develop a nursing care plan, a teaching plan, suggest legal advice or plan a marketing strategy. Introduction Brief background information on topic Overview of issues to be addressed in the essay structure State overall interpretation thesis paragraph 1 Topic sentence outlining first issue identified from the data Sentences giving further explanation and providing evidence from both the literature and the data, e. Concluding sentence — link to next paragraph paragraph 2 Topic sentence outlining second issue identified As above Concluding sentence — link to next paragraph Following body paragraphs These follow the same structure for as many issues as you wish to discuss from the data you have been supplied. Conclusion Summary of the main issues from the data supplied Make recommendations or suggest solutions to address the issues arising from the data supplied.

Figure caption below an embedded podcast file for a document to be viewed electronically : Fig. Harry Potter and Voldemort final battle debate from Andrew Sims et al.

It is often abbreviated "ex. Supply the illustration, making sure to maintain basic MLA Style formatting e. Below the example, provide the label capitalizing Example or Ex. The caption or title will often take the form of source information along with an explanation, for example, of what part of the score is being illustrated.

Gather the source information required for MLA documentation for the source medium of the illustration e. Example of an XY line graph: Figure 5. An example image is given in Figure 4. Tables Tables are used to present information.

Musical Illustration reference: Source: Thomas, Ambroise. Source information and note form Notes serve two purposes: to provide bibliographic information and to provide additional context for information in the text.

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When it comes to citing illustrations, using notes allows for how bibliographic information as close to the illustration as possible. Commas are substituted for periods except in the case of the period that ends the entry. Publication information for books publisher, year appears in parentheses. Relevant essay numbers follow the publication information.

Note: Use semicolons to denote entry sections when long series of commas make these sections difficult 4th grade comparative literary essay example ascertain as being like or separate see examples below.

Examples - Documenting source information in "Note form" The following examples provide information on how a note might look following an diagram. If an illustration requires more than one note, label additional notes with lowercase letters, starting put a see the note underneath the example table above.

Website using semicolons to group like information together United States; Dept. In this example, the commas in Manufacturing, Mining, and Construction Statistics prompt the need for semicolons in order for the series information to be read easily. Even if Manufacturing, Mining, and Construction Statistics had not appeared in the entry, the multiple "author names" of United States, Dept. Furthermore, the publisher and date in a standard entry are separated by a comma and belong together; thus, their inclusion here US Dept.

Note on manuscripts Do not embed illustrations tables, figures, or examples in manuscripts for publication.

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However, correlation does not necessarily imply that changes in one variable cause changes in the other. For instance, a third, unplotted variable may be causing both. In other words, scatter plots can be used to graph one independent and one dependent variable, or they can be used to plot two independent variables. In cases where one variable is dependent on another for example, height depends partly on age , plot the independent variable on the horizontal x axis, and the dependent variable on the vertical y axis. In addition to correlation a linear relationship , scatter plots can be used to plot non-linear relationships between variables. Example of a scatter plot: Figure 4. The effect of weather on UFO sightings XY line graphs Line graphs are similar to scatter plots in that they display data along two axes of variation. Line graphs, however, plot a series of related values that depict a change in one variable as a function of another, for example, world population dependent over time independent. Line graphs are similar to bar graphs, but are better at showing the rate of change between two points. Line graphs can also be used to compare multiple dependent variables by plotting multiple lines on the same graph. Example of an XY line graph: Figure 5. Age of the actor of each Doctor Who regeneration General tips for graphs Strive for simplicity. Your data will be complex. Your job and the job of your graph is to communicate the most important thing about the data. Think of graphs like you think of paragraphs—if you have several important things to say about your data, make several graphs, each of which highlights one important point you want to make. Strive for clarity. An example may be to ask you to investigate a problem and explore a range of solutions. You may also be asked to choose the best solution and justify your selection, allow space for this in your essay. Situate the table near the text to which it relates. Align the table flush-left to the margin. Label the table 'Table' and provide its corresponding Arabic numeral. No punctuation is necessary after the label and number see example below. On the next line, provide a caption for the table, most often the table title. Use title case. Place the table below the caption, flush-left, making sure to maintain basic MLA style formatting e. Below the title, signal the source information with the descriptor "Source," followed by a colon, then provide the correct MLA bibliographic information for the source in note form see instructions and examples above. Use a hanging indent for lines after the first. If you provide source information with your illustrations, you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page. If additional caption information or explanatory notes is necessary, use lowercase letters formatted in superscript in the caption information or table. Below the source information, indent, provide a corresponding lowercase letter not in superscript , a space, and the note. If the diagram really is the best way to present relevant information, and doing so demonstrates a quality being sought maybe you're applying for a design or marketing position , then you could consider adding diagrams anyway. Your application will stand out; you want it to stand out for a good reason and not a bad one. Finally: about your diagrams In the case of the examples you've shown here, I personally wouldn't include them. In this chapter we will take a look at figures, tables and references. These are all important elements of reporting the findings of your research, and often cause problems although they are really quite straightforward. Figures and tables can be used to present data, clarify interpretations and to explain concepts. This chapter covers when you should use figures and tables, and how to format them such that they serve their purpose. References are important for another reason — they allow your reader to follow-up what you have read. You may refer to a theory or a research finding that the reader wishes to read about for themselves. In order for him or her to do this, you must provide a reference to the relevant text that they can use to locate the book or journal. References must, therefore, contain the relevant information to allow the reader to do this. Furthermore, the references must be formatted in a consistent and conventional manner. This is not difficult, and if you follow the advice given here you should pick up most if not all of the available marks. Graphs are typically used to present your data in a form that is easy for the reader to understand. Images and diagrams are more likely to be used to help explain concepts or theories. The caption information should allow the figure to stand alone. No hanging indent is needed.

Put placeholders in the text to show where the illustrations diagram go. Type these placeholders argumentative essay ideas for college their own put, flush essay, and bracketed e. At the end of the document, provide label, number, caption, and source information in an organized list.

Send files for illustrations how the appropriate format to your editor separately.