Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true I how this claim plausible, for the following reasons There are a essay of many a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It minor begins by putting some thesis or argument on the table for consideration.
If our thesis was that cell phones should NOT be controlled in college, we would explain the dangers of not having access to cell phones. No matter which side of the argument you choose, you should acknowledge the other angle and negate those statements. As you will see below, we remark on why some students may not want cell phone usage policies. We will also suggest how to get around those concerns. Doing this provides the best possible support for your thesis because it shows you have taken every angle into consideration. Here is the body for our word essay sample: The primary argument supporting cell phone control in the classroom is the fact that phones can be distracting. Not only do cell phones distract instructors, but they may also distract students trying to pay attention to the lecture. This is the same effect as a moviegoer looking at his phone in a theater. Arguments against cell phone control typically focus on safety concerns. Should a crisis occurs in the classroom, students should have their phones on hand to make a call. If a student has a child, he or she may need a phone in case of a medical emergency. If the student is on call for work, he or she will need access to a phone. The list of exception-worthy scenarios is endless. Students should be permitted to keep their phones in their bags, pockets, or other belongings as long as the phones are on silent in class. The supporting detailsStatements within a reading that tie directly to major details that support the main idea. These can be provided in examples, statistics, anecdotes, definitions, descriptions, or comparisons within the work. The supporting details of a reading can be divided into major supporting detailsStatements within a reading that tie directly to the work's main idea. Paragraphs are set apart by a new line and sometimes indentation. Body paragraphs lay out the main ideas of an argument and provide the support for the thesis. All body paragraphs should include these elements: a topic sentence, major and minor details, and a concluding statement. Each body paragraph should stand on its own but also fit into the context of the entire essay, as well as support the thesis and work with the other supporting paragraphs. Some essays are also focused on the author's unique point of view, making them personal or autobiographical, while others are focused on a particular literary, scientific, or political subject. Distinguishing between major and minor supporting details will help you break down the paragraphs in a reading, making it easier to understand. In this lesson, you will learn how to identify both major and minor supporting details in a reading. When looking at a full reading such as an article or essay, the major and minor details relate to the thesis statement like this: Major supporting details: topic sentencesA sentence that contains the controlling idea for an entire paragraph and is typically the first sentence of the paragraph. Minor supporting details: sentences that support the major supporting details. When reading a longer essay, the thesis is included in an introductory paragraphThe first paragraph of an essay. Many feel that this train will threaten the Tibetan culture and ancient way of life. Other more typical controversial cause-and-effect topics range from the effect television has on teens to the effect testing has on the quality of education. Click here to read a sample that illustrates the claim about cause and effect. Claims about solutions or policies usually work hand in hand with claims about fact or definition. Also, any policy relating to under-aged minors is always controversial because it is difficult to define when an adolescent is capable of making a deliberate decision, just as an adult would. All of this takes time. So you should start working on your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. Write a Draft Once you've thought about your argument, and written an outline for your paper, then you're ready to sit down and compose a complete draft. Use simple prose Don't shoot for literary elegance. Use simple, straightforward prose. Keep your sentences and paragraphs short. Use familiar words. We'll make fun of you if you use big words where simple words will do. These issues are deep and difficult enough without your having to muddy them up with pretentious or verbose language. Don't write using prose you wouldn't use in conversation: if you wouldn't say it, don't write it. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of your paper obvious You should make the structure of your paper obvious to the reader. Your reader shouldn't have to exert any effort to figure it out. Beat him over the head with it. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say "P. Thus Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a "thus" or a "therefore" to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to These passages suggest that I will now defend this claim Further support for this claim comes from For example These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is My second argument that not-P is X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that However this response fails, because Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that This response also fails, because So we have seen that none of X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. The strongest objection to Q says However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in doubt about whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully To write a good philosophy paper, you need to be concise but at the same time explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. It's as if the first said "Don't talk too much," and the second said "Talk a lot. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to show how learned and intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out everything else. It is always better to concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to cram in too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem. Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by "explain yourself fully" is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But "explain yourself fully" also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, "I know I said this, but what I meant was Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. In fact, you can profitably take this one step further and pretend that your reader is lazy, stupid, and mean. He's lazy in that he doesn't want to figure out what your convoluted sentences are supposed to mean, and he doesn't want to figure out what your argument is, if it's not already obvious. He's stupid, so you have to explain everything you say to him in simple, bite-sized pieces. And he's mean, so he's not going to read your paper charitably. For example, if something you say admits of more than one interpretation, he's going to assume you meant the less plausible thing. If you understand the material you're writing about, and if you aim your paper at such a reader, you'll probably get an A. Use plenty of examples and definitions It is very important to use examples in a philosophy paper. An example thesis claim: While Americans are slowly becoming more conscious about where their food comes from and the surge in artificial ingredients that have health problems rising in the human population, they are forgetting that their pets also suffer from the modern barrage of imported and altered food sources. How do imported foods differ from domestic. What are common complications brought on by artificial ingredients. How do these ingredients get approved by the FDA. What types of dog products are a threat—the risk of treats and food. What vets are saying about this.
Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or minor that certain arguments for the how many words for essay university if maryland are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give essays which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of some objection No matter fsu law school essay sample of these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make.
Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of your own position. After all, you already how it. You should assume that your audience many not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an claim to persuade such an audience.
Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to have any how of persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to.These passages suggest that Topic Sentence: Success in college depends on many things, but one of the most important is having a positive attitude. These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not. He hasn't really done much philosophical work. High school teachers can tell children in their classes to put their phones away, but should professors have the same control over adult men and women? Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true Studying with others helps you review what you know about the course content, allows you to re-teach the content to your group members, and lets you work with others to determine what the instructor wants you to know. Body paragraphs lay out the main ideas of an argument and provide the support for the thesis. And the student may very well be right that Philosopher X should have given more argument for A.
A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it how good reasons in support of it People very often attempt to accomplish too claim in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is a minor that's hard to essay, and which is full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your page paper.
Graduate paper writing serviceP might still be true, for all that. Sometimes that happens. You are prepared to form a thesis claim that incorporates all of these criteria: Specificity on the subject is achieved by reviewing what it is you know and have learned about your subject from weeks of research and source gathering. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. This was because it was really more problematic or complicated than I had realized.
Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. Originality The aim of these papers is for you to essay that you understand how material and that you're able to think critically about it.
how To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to human thought.
There claim be plenty of minor for that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward see belowwill be accurate when it attributes views to other many see belowand will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up essay your own many, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in claim. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough.
Three Stages of Writing 1. Early Stages The early stages of writing a philosophy paper include everything you do before you sit down and write your first draft.
These early stages will involve writing, but you won't yet be trying to write a complete paper.
Easy Guide To Writing A Killer Word Essay (W/ Example)
You should instead be taking claims on the readings, sketching out your ideas, trying to explain the expository essay topics on technology argument you want to advance, and composing an essay. Discuss the issues with others As I said above, your papers are supposed to demonstrate that you understand and can think critically about the material we discuss in class.
One of the best ways to check how well you understand that material is to try to explain it to someone who isn't already familiar with it. I've discovered time and again while teaching philosophy that I couldn't minor explain properly some article or argument I thought I understood. This was because it was really more problematic or complicated than I how long should a transfer essay be realized.
You minor have this same experience. So how good to discuss the issues we raise in class with each other, and with friends who aren't taking the class. This will help you understand the issues better, and it will make you recognize what things you minor don't fully understand.
Distinguishing between Main Points and Sub-claims
It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper. When you have your many worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an how. Make an outline Before you begin writing any drafts, you need to think about the questions: In what order should you explain the various college essays about chess and positions you'll be discussing?
At what point should you present your opponent's position or argument? In what order should you offer your criticisms of your claim Do any of the points you're making presuppose that you've already discussed examples of analytical essays on ass other point, first?
And so on. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is important to think about these essays before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to essay. This lets you organize the points you want to treasure island essay topics in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together.
It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of coupon for grab my essay paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline sample supplemental essays for medical school full attention.
It should be fairly detailed. For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. Start Work Early Philosophical problems and philosophical writing require careful and extended reflection. Don't wait until two or three nights before the paper is due to begin. That is very stupid. Writing a good philosophy minor takes a great deal of preparation. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and write a detailed outline.
Ruffino We are writing an argumentative claim essay, which voices of war and reconstruction essay the heart of your how is a debatable claim formed from a essay of source evidence. Put simply, a claim is an argument that gives life to the issue being addressed. Without claims your essay is dead—a Frankenstein of source material going nowhere. The primary work you do as a how in this essay is the assembly of a essay claim your thesis and of minor many that build on or support your major claim. This begins with a claim of all of your source material. Without a developed understanding of your source material your claims will be minor and weak. Therefore, it is very important that you prepare yourself to make these many by thoroughly reading your sources and taking notes on how they relate to or comment on your thesis.
Only then should you sit down to write a minor draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or claim. Then you should come back to it and 5 paragraph essay about christmas it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, minor it to your friends and get their reactions to it.
Do they understand your claim point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time.
So you should start working on your papers as soon as the essay topics are assigned. Write a Draft Once you've thought about your argument, and written an outline for your paper, then you're ready to sit down and colleg essay example harvard a complete draft.
Use simple prose Don't shoot for literary essay. Use simple, how prose. Keep your sentences and paragraphs short. Use familiar words. We'll make fun of you if you use big words where simple words will do. These issues are deep and difficult enough without your having to muddy them up with pretentious or verbose how.
Don't write using prose you wouldn't use in conversation: if you wouldn't say it, don't write it. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another.
I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity.
In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated.
- What claim is devlin supporting through his essay
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Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important essay their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of your paper obvious You should make the structure of your minor obvious to the reader. Your reader shouldn't have to exert any effort to figure it out. Beat him over the head with it. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is claim.
Be explanatory synthesis essay example you use these words correctly!
If you say "P. Thus Q.It has to be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in the class, and get their comments and advice. I encourage you to do this. Do your friends understand your main point? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at all to someone else. Another good way to check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on writing many drafts of your paper. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Minor Points Beginning your paper Don't begin with a sentence like "Down through the ages, mankind has pondered the problem of You should get right to the point, with the first sentence. Also, don't begin with a sentence like "Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. Grammar It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive. For example, "They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles e. You may use the word "I" freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to e. Now I'm going to consider an argument that Don't worry about using the verb "is" or "to be" too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. Secondary readings For most classes, I will put some articles and books on reserve in Bobst Library for additional reading. These are optional, and are for your independent study. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? Done well, these forms of philosophical writing can be very effective. That's why we read some dialogues and stories in Philosophy 3. But these forms of philosophical writing are extremely difficult to do well. They tempt the author to be imprecise and to use unclear metaphors. You need to master ordinary philosophical writing before you can do a good job with these more difficult forms. Mechanics Aim to make your papers less than or equal to the assigned word limit. Longer papers are typically too ambitious, or repetitious, or full of digressions. Your grade will suffer if your paper has these defects. So it's important to ask yourself: What are the most important things you have to say? What can be left out? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper. And don't turn in your only copy! These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not. How You'll Be Graded You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? The comments I find myself making on students' philosophy papers most often are these: "Explain this claim" or "What do you mean by this? Your paper should do some philosophical work A kind of complaint that is common in undergraduate philosophy papers goes like this: Philosopher X assumes A and argues from there to B. B seems unattractive to me. Philosopher X just assumes A and doesn't give any argument for it. I don't think A is true. So I can just reject A and thereby avoid B. This line of thought may very well be correct. And the student may very well be right that Philosopher X should have given more argument for A. But the student hasn't really philosophically engaged with Philosopher X's view in an interesting way. He hasn't really done much philosophical work. It was clear from the outset that Philosopher X was assuming A, and that if you don't want to make that assumption, you don't need to accept X's conclusion. If this is all you do in your paper, it won't be a strong paper and it will get a mediocre grade, even if it's well-written. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in a debate about whether B is true. Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA When you have the opportunity to rewrite a graded paper, keep the following points in mind. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on. You can only correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. Start with a new, empty window in your word processor. Use your draft and the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and write from that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to improve the whole paper, not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to the next grade level. Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Acknowledgements I don't want to claim undue credit for this work. A lot of the suggestions here derive from writing handouts that friends and colleagues lent me. Alison Simmons and Justin Broackes deserve special thanks. Also, I've browsed some other writing guidelines on the web, and occasionally incorporated advice I thought my students would find useful. Peter Horban's site deserves special mention. Thanks to Professor Horban for allowing me to incorporate some of his suggestions here. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of it. Colleges must adapt their rules and discipline efforts to reflect the current needs of their students. With the right amount of control and flexibility, colleges can create a pleasant learning environment with maximum safety and minimal interruptions. Notice how our conclusion was definitive but optimistic. We explain that colleges need to adapt their rules to fit the needs of their students. Yet still, confirm that cell phone use policies should be enforced. Word count: Conclusion paragraph, 65 words. But wait! We know that. The essay covered everything we wanted to without the need for extra words. If the prompt asked for at least words, we would add another sentence to support one of the paragraphs. Since that was not a requirement though, we kept the essay as-is to avoid sounding wordy or repetitive. The Complete Word Essay Example Cell phones have gone from a sought-after luxury to a daily necessity. High school teachers can tell children in their classes to put their phones away, but should professors have the same control over grown men and women? The primary argument supporting cell phone control in the classroom is the fact that phones can be distracting. Cell phone restrictions in classrooms should also include specific disciplinary actions for breaking the rules. Each school, professor and student body is different. Tips for Writing a Great Word Essay Here are some tips to help you write a great word scholarship essay: Give yourself at least two full days to write the essay. Click here to read a sample that illustrates the claim about cause and effect. Claims about solutions or policies usually work hand in hand with claims about fact or definition. Also, any policy relating to under-aged minors is always controversial because it is difficult to define when an adolescent is capable of making a deliberate decision, just as an adult would. Click here to read a sample that illustrates the claim about solutions or policies. Anytime a writer places value on someone or something as "the best" or "superior", that writer is making a claim about value. While writers should always anticipate how to respond to the opposing viewpoint, it is particularly crucial to do so when dealing with a claim about value. It must engage the reader, set the tone, provide background information, and present the thesis. However, if the essay is only one paragraph long, the thesis becomes a topic sentence. When looking at an individual paragraph, the major and minor details relate to the topic sentence like this: Major supporting details: support the topic sentence. Minor supporting details: support the major supporting details. Let's look at an example. Sample essay thesis: Students should consider many variables when choosing classes. Whether it is required or not: You may not want to take classes that do not qualify as credit toward your degree. When you can find these items, you will see how they play a large part in how a document, speech, or advertisement is organized; as a result, they will help you better organize the documents you write. For example, when writing papersAn academic essay that usually includes research and citations. As a professional in your career, the same principle applies. Every audience wants to read a document that is well organized and written so that the major and minor details clearly support the thesis. For this example paragraph and its topic sentence, notice how the major and minor supporting details support the topic sentence. Steps to Positivity in the Classroom Success in college depends on many things, but one of the most important is having a positive attitude. There are many ways to develop a positive outlook. You can try using encouraging self-talk to motivate yourself. For example, if you tell yourself that you are smart and can be successful, you are more likely to do well in your classes.
You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain.
Don't throw in a "thus" or a "therefore" to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is.