The overall results indicated that both hyperspectral imaging and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging techniques could provide useful tools for stress phenotyping in maize breeding programs and could enable the detection and evaluation of superior genotypes, such as glyphosate tolerance, with a non-destructive high-throughput technique. Previous research had demonstrated that the lack of shikimate accumulation in glyphosate-treated plants could be used as an indicator of glyphosate resistance Padgette et al. The early, non-destructive identification of superior plant phenotypes is an important stage in plant breeding programs.
When the number of wavelengths was decreased to 11, the PLSR model was still considered as acceptable with R2c of 0. It was impossible to measure the physiological parameters of each pixel, so the average value for the physiological parameters and the corresponding spectrum from each sample were used for calibration. Additionally, the leaves of WT appeared both chlorotic and necrotic after 8 days exposure to glyphosate. Nithaya, the lovely Thai therapist has been performing these treatments for 15 years as not only a certified massage therapist, but also a medical one as she used to work in a hospital.
Glyphosate promotes deregulation of the shikimate pathway and can affect a series of events, such as blocking photosynthetic electron transport, inhibiting CO2 assimilation processes, and reducing chlorophyll and leaf water concentrations, which are ultimately reflections of biochemical, physiological, and cell structural changes in response to glyphosate exposure Silva et al. The result remained the same, so I was advised to check my cooking utensils at home and make sure nothing contains aluminium, check my deodorant and body care products and make sure they are aluminium free and restrict any use of aluminium foil in cooking. In this case, SPA was firstly used to select sensitive wavelengths and to speed up the prediction models from hyperspectral imaging data.
As I rarely get those moments — the moments where you are only in the company of your thoughts and listening to no one but yourself — it was much needed.
An early and non-destructive assessment of glyphosate phytotoxicity damage would be useful for identifying glyphosate-tolerant individuals in a segregating breeding population. Time Course of Hyperspectral Spectral Data Response to Glyphosate Treatment Following on from the results which showing that the destructive assays to determine shikimic acid and chlorophyll concentrations demonstrated differences between the response to glyphosate of the WT and TG genotypes, non-invasive techniques, namely Vis-NIR HIS and ChlF imaging, were then tested to detect effects on photosynthesis. In our research, transgenic maize, which was highly tolerant to glyphosate, was phenotyped using these high-throughput non-destructive methods to validate low levels of shikimic acid accumulation and high photochemical efficiency of photosystem II as reflected by maximum quantum yield and non-photochemical quenching in response to glyphosate. SPA is a forward selection approach, which selects combination of variables with minimal collinearity information Wang et al.
To evaluate the actual roles of individual features, the full spectral range wavelengths and the above-mentioned sensitive wavelengths 11 wavelengths were therefore set as the input of the PLSR model Figure 6. Additional aims were: 1 to identify sensitive wavelengths from hyperspectral data and to establish a mathematical model for predicting shikimic acid concentration; 2 to discover the appropriate ChlF indicators for rapid detection of glyphosate-induced metabolic perturbations and to investigate the relationship between glyphosate-induced ChlF characteristics and the level of glyphosate stress; 3 to find the optimal imaging technique for high-throughput screening and characterization of the glyphosate-tolerant maize genotype to facilitate plant breeding programs. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at Zhejiang University, in October An early and non-destructive assessment of glyphosate phytotoxicity damage would be useful for identifying glyphosate-tolerant individuals in a segregating breeding population.
With this system, various fluorescence signals could be obtained. This was given to me every day before meals.
The plant was dark adapted for 30 min before measurements were taken. To her, my body was tense no wonder and this was negatively affecting my posture and blocking the energy channels in the body. Day two ended over a quiet dinner. Relaxed, sleepy and after what was a not-so-bad vegan dinner, I was ready to sleep — 9pm lights off.
Maize breeding programs need a quick and easy tool for assessing phenotypes, which allows the non-destructive screening of large numbers of plants, making it possible to identify desired individuals early in the screening process. Standard biochemical detection techniques, such as spectrophotometry or high-performance liquid chromatography, have been used to quantify shikimic acid concentration in glyphosate-treated plant tissues Pline et al.
Okay so back to my day… My breakfast consisted of a selection of fruit, hazelnuts, raw almonds and fresh juice.