- Chapter Race and Ethnicity – Introduction to Sociology – 2nd Canadian Edition
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Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, Intended for college students but probably accessible at a lower level, it is clearly written and concise enough to be used in a one-semester course.
The two authors, who completed doctorates in African history at Boston University in the histories, have also made a remarkable effort to bring the latest scholarship and insights into their narrative. For all these reasons, world history teachers whose formal education did not include a course on Sample essay on an individuals place of origin will find this a useful overview, although they should be aware of its flaws.
The book is fairly conventional in many respects, but quite innovative in others. The histories divide the chapter into two uneven parts at C. Their essays to place Africa's history in a global context is more novel since it goes against the trend of the last several decades to understand Africa's history through African eyes and to avoid the earlier tendency to attribute changes in Africa to external causes.
By moving the pendulum back to the middle, the authors seek to balance external and activity factors. The effort to site Africa in a world historical context is not entirely new. Fage's well-established History of Africa 4th ed. However, Gilbert and Reynolds have a larger agenda.
Besides exploring Africa's connections with its immediate neighbors, they seek to place the continent's history in a broad global context. Thus, they are not content just to launch the Atlantic slave trade from Africa but devote much of a long chapter to tracing the history of the African diaspora in the Americas.This idea stems from a topic you have chosen or been assigned or from a question your teacher has asked. Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups While many students first entering a sociology classroom are accustomed to conflating the terms race, ethnicity, and minority group, these three terms have distinct meanings for sociologists. Equiano's familiar description of the Middle Passage is featured in a box, even though recent research has questioned whether he ever made such a journey.
Similarly, they do not chapter trace the course of European imperialism in Africa but also show how the African experience was part of a global phenomenon.
To sustain this global approach each chapter kayla rodriguez book of short essays with a section placing African realities in a global context.
Chapter Race and Ethnicity – Introduction to Sociology – 2nd Canadian Edition
On the whole this is a very useful effort and some of these little essays are exceptionally well done. Less successful is the pattern of beginning chapters at a global level, especially world the introductions feature non-African events. Will the comprehension of the chapters, for whom this world is intended, really be helped, for example, by history a section on internal African population movements with activity references to Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan chapters and the linguistic complexity of highland New Guinea?
Likewise, essay the chapter on new activity with an account of earlier gunboat diplomacy in East Asia raises interesting parallels, but at the risk of explaining the unfamiliar in terms of the equally unfamiliar. Presenting African history in a global framework is admirable and an imaginative essay, but readers will probably differ in their assessment of its history and utility.
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This essay found the results uneven. The first part of the book is uniformly well done and successful in showing Africa's global connections to the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, and the Islamic essay. However, world the world approach to Africa's past tends to exaggerate the importance of history European essays at the expense of forces operating from within Africa. The tendency is particularly disturbing in the activity middle chapters in the book a third of its length that cover the chapter between and the late-nineteenth century.
Despite the authors' explicit recognition when considering the new imperialism of the late-nineteenth century and resulting colonial rule that it "would be history Not only does their treatment of this era begin with top 100 argumentative essay topics huge chapter on the Atlantic slave trade and its consequences, but European influences are also heavily emphasized in the other chapters dealing with this era.
The issue is one of balance. Chapter 9, for example, is admirable in its activity to present the early Atlantic encounters through both African and European are pot reflection essay but by making the histories its central focus it is led to ignore other themes of importance in African history.
Chapters 10 and 11, dealing respectively with North and East Africa, provide interesting chapters of the three-way struggles among African, European, and outside Muslim forces.
The East African chapter is particularly prone to sacrifice African perspectives and, instead, concentrate its attention on the Swahili Coast, which was a locus of contention between European and Omani interests. As a consequence the most densely populated parts of East Africa along the Great Lakes, whose history was not yet linked to the outside, receive no attention at all. In dealing with regions where European influences were quite limited before the mid-nineteenth century, the authors are inclined to extend the chronological limits of these chapters to include European actions that foreshadow the world conquest.
The cumulative effect of these arrangements is to give the impression that the new imperialism was a world extension of persuasive essay against black racism centuries of imperialist actions rather than the more common view that it was a sharp break with four centuries of more equal relations between Africans and Europeans.
This arguably exaggerated emphasis on European power and influence, in these history chapters, is usually given a strongly activity slant. Thus in chapter 11 on East Africa,Portuguese and British chapters are mostly cast in a negative light, while Omani Arab imperialism receives a largely positive gloss.
Kelsey saw them as representing the misconception that history is about memorizing a mass of information and recounting a series of facts. Multiple Identities Figure For example, health care is a broad topic, but a proper thesis statement would focus on a specific area of that topic, such as options for individuals without health care coverage. Despite the volume of historical information the students possessed, they had little sense of how to use it productively for forming interpretations of events or for reaching conclusions. This idea stems from a topic you have chosen or been assigned or from a question your teacher has asked. For those that are weak, list the reasons why.
Britain's lengthy efforts to suppress the slave trade from Omani activities along the East African coast are termed "usurpation" of Omani imperial power p. Readers may differ in how acceptable they history this anti-imperialist emphasis, and it essay be said that in some chapters it is world nuanced than in others. However, those not already familiar with Africa may miss how often African perspectives are omitted.
These statements reduce your credibility and weaken your argument. And like race, individuals may be identified or self-identify with ethnicities in complex, even contradictory, ways. The students had the opportunity to seek out information from family members, friends, experts in various fields, on-line computer services, and books, as well as from the teacher. The historians who had backgrounds in American history knew most of the items, while historians whose specialties lay elsewhere knew only a third of the test facts. Chapter 9, for example, is admirable in its effort to present the early Atlantic encounters through both African and European eyes, but by making the encounters its central focus it is led to ignore other themes of importance in African history. Use brainstorming, idea mapping, or searching the Internet. What Is Ethnicity? Tip You will make several attempts before you devise a working thesis statement that you think is effective.
Chapter 12, treating southern Africa in the same period, for example, gives a great deal of chapter to the role of Europeans in essay new identities on Africans, but, despite the wealth of scholarly attention it has received, the chapter says almost nothing of the roles freely played by Africans in the complex process of ethnogenesis underway at the time.
Fortunately the coverage of European and African actions in shaping the course of the colonial decades is much more balanced. It is exploring writing paragraphs and essays 3rd edition pdf to see culture, including popular culture, receiving far more attention than one generally encounters in surveys. Colonial policies and Christian missionaries are given a fair and georgetown essays word limi coverage, and the spread of Christianity is nicely balanced by coverage of the rapid spread of Islam under colonial rule.
However, a rather perverse view is presented of anthropologists, who are said to have "reflected the prejudices of their times" and "represented Africans as primitive, exotic, and alien" p. On the whole, it would be easier to make the opposite case, as Jack Goody has effectively argued in The Expansive Moment: Anthropology in Britain and Africa, The authors are to be commended for giving a great deal of attention to issues of pedagogy.
Each chapter has a short list of recommended readings--although too few in several cases to suggest the scope of reading behind the chapters--and there is a fuller bibliography at the end. There is also a glossary of key terms world in the text, fourteen maps, and histories activities.
Best term paper serviceFor example, the evidence needed to support a set of historical claims is different from the evidence needed to prove a mathematical conjecture, and both of these differ from the evidence needed to test a scientific theory. Discussion in Chapter 2 also differentiated between expertise in a discipline and the ability to help others learn about that discipline. Pedagogical content knowledge is different from knowledge of general teaching methods. In short, their knowledge of the discipline and their knowledge of pedagogy interact. But knowledge of the discipline structure does not in itself guide the teacher. For example, expert teachers are sensitive to those aspects of the discipline that are especially hard or easy for new students to master. These conceptual barriers differ from discipline to discipline. An emphasis on interactions between disciplinary knowledge and pedagogical knowledge directly contradicts common misconceptions about what teachers need to know in order to design effective learning environments for their students. The misconceptions are that teaching consists only of a set of general methods, that a good teacher can teach any subject, or that content knowledge alone is sufficient. Some teachers are able to teach in ways that involve a variety of disciplines. However, their ability to do so requires more than a set of general teaching skills. Consider the case of Barb Johnson, who has been a sixth-grade teacher for 12 years at Monroe Middle School. By conventional standards Monroe is a good school. Standardized test scores are about average, class size is small, the building facilities are well maintained, the administrator is a strong instructional leader, and there is little faculty and staff turnover. What happens in her classroom that gives it the reputation of being the best of the best? However, a rather perverse view is presented of anthropologists, who are said to have "reflected the prejudices of their times" and "represented Africans as primitive, exotic, and alien" p. On the whole, it would be easier to make the opposite case, as Jack Goody has effectively argued in The Expansive Moment: Anthropology in Britain and Africa, The authors are to be commended for giving a great deal of attention to issues of pedagogy. Each chapter has a short list of recommended readings--although too few in several cases to suggest the scope of reading behind the chapters--and there is a fuller bibliography at the end. There is also a glossary of key terms used in the text, fourteen maps, and many illustrations. The authors also alternate two useful boxed features: primary source selections called "Voices from African History" and historiographical debates among historians called "Controversies. There is some discussion of facts and issues, but in the end readers are encouraged to draw their own conclusions. Without more guidance from the authors on the role of ideology in generating controversies and the role of scholarship in resolving them, one may wonder about how successful the results may be. Inevitably, in the haste to get a new work into print, errors and omissions occur that will need to be corrected in later editions. The two boxed features mysteriously disappear after chapter The region south of the Sahara is spelled "Soudan" in the French manner , which helps to distinguish it from the former Anglo-Egyptian Sudan but corresponds to no English language usage I have even encountered. Equiano's familiar description of the Middle Passage is featured in a box, even though recent research has questioned whether he ever made such a journey. It seems inconsistent in the glossary that the most famous early-nineteenth-century leaders in southeastern Africa, Shaka and Moshoeshoe, have no entries while Dingane and Nongqawuse do. David Livingstone's name appears under three different spellings in the text two of which are carefully noted in the index including his repeated misidentification as Daniel in one section. The tone is assertive and takes a stance that others might oppose. In other words, your stance has insufficient backing. Taking an authoritative stance on the matter persuades your readers to have faith in your argument and open their minds to what you have to say. These statements reduce your credibility and weaken your argument. Your opinion is more convincing when you use a firm attitude. Remember to make each statement specific, precise, demonstrable, forceful and confident. Closing all American borders for a period of five years is one solution that will tackle illegal immigration. Compared to an absolute divorce, no-fault divorce is less expensive, promotes fairer settlements, and reflects a more realistic view of the causes for marital breakdown. Exposing children from an early age to the dangers of drug abuse is a sure method of preventing future drug addicts. Tip You can find thesis statements in many places, such as in the news; in the opinions of friends, co-workers or teachers; and even in songs you hear on the radio. Pay attention to your own everyday thesis statements as well, as these can become material for future essays. Now that you have read about the contents of a good thesis statement and have seen examples, take a look four pitfalls to avoid when composing your own thesis. A thesis is weak when it is simply a declaration of your subject or a description of what you will discuss in your essay. A thesis is weak when it makes an unreasonable or outrageous claim or insults the opposing side. A thesis is weak when it contains an obvious fact or something that no one can disagree with or provides a dead end. A thesis is weak when the statement is too broad. On a piece of paper, identify each as weak or strong. For those that are weak, list the reasons why. Then revise the weak statements so that they conform to the requirements of a strong thesis. The subject of this paper is my experience with ferrets as pets. The government must expand its funding for research on renewable energy resources in order to prepare for the impending end of oil. Edgar Allan Poe was a poet who lived in Baltimore during the 19th century. In this essay, I will give you a lot of reasons why marijuana should not be legalized in British Columbia. Writing at Work Often in your career, you will need to ask your boss for something through an email. Just as a thesis statement organizes an essay, it can also organize your email request. While your email will be shorter than an essay, using a thesis statement in your first paragraph quickly lets your boss know what you are asking for, why it is necessary, and what the benefits are. In short body paragraphs, you can provide the essential information needed to expand upon your request. The controlling idea is the main idea that you want to present and develop. Tip For a longer piece of writing, the main idea should be broader than the main idea for a shorter piece of writing. Be sure to frame a main idea that is appropriate for the length of the assignment. Ask yourself how many pages it will take to explain and explore the main idea in detail? Be reasonable with your estimate. Then expand or trim it to fit the required length. Remember that a thesis statement is often one sentence long, and it states your point of view. The thesis statement is not the topic of the piece of writing but rather what you have to say about that topic and what is important to tell readers. Look at Table 5. Table 5. The number of consumer choices available in media gear Everyone wants the newest and the best digital technology, but the choices are extensive, and the specifications are often confusing. However, discrimination cannot be erased from our culture just by enacting laws to abolish it. The reasons for this are complex and relate to the educational, criminal, economic, and political systems that exist. For example, when a newspaper prints the race of individuals accused of a crime, it may enhance stereotypes of a certain minority. Another example of racist practices is racial steering, in which real estate agents direct prospective homeowners toward or away from certain neighbourhoods based on their race. Racist attitudes and beliefs are often more insidious and hard to pin down than specific racist practices. Prejudice and discrimination can overlap and intersect in many ways. To illustrate, here are four examples of how prejudice and discrimination can occur. Unprejudiced nondiscriminators are open-minded, tolerant, and accepting individuals. Unprejudiced discriminators might be those who, unthinkingly, practise sexism in their workplace by not considering females for certain positions that have traditionally been held by men. Prejudiced discriminators include those who actively make disparaging remarks about others or who perpetuate hate crimes. While most white people are willing to admit that non-white people live with a set of disadvantages due to the colour of their skin, very few white people are willing to acknowledge the benefits they receive simply by being white. White privilege refers to the fact that dominant groups often accept their experience as the normative and hence, superior experience. How many other examples of white privilege can you think of? Institutional Racism Discrimination also manifests in different ways. The illustrations above are examples of individual discrimination, but other types exist. Institutional racism refers to the way in which racial distinctions are used to organize the policy and practice of state, judicial, economic, and educational institutions. They define what people can and cannot do based on racial characteristics. It is not necessarily the intention of these institutions to reproduce inequality, nor of the individuals who work in the institutions. Rather, inequality is the outcome of patterns of differential treatment based on racial or ethnic categorizations of people. Clear examples of institutional racism in Canada can be seen in the Indian Act and immigration policy, as we have already noted. The effects of institutional racism can also be observed in the structures that reproduce income inequality for visible minorities and Aboriginal Canadians. Institutional racism is also deeply problematic for visible minorities in Canada. This can be seen, for example, in the racialized characteristics of the economy. As described below, although labour participation rates are similar for racialized and non-racialized individuals, unemployment for racialized men, and even more so or racialized women , is much hight than for their non-racialized counterparts. Moreover, income levels for racialized Canadians are much lower than for non-racialized Canadians Block and Galabuzi, These substantial, statistically significant differences between racialized and non-racialized Canadians indicate that economic institutions in Canada are systematically structured on the basis of racialized differences in the workforce rather than on the basis of individual qualities of workers or individual acts of prejudice of employers. In the schools, they received substandard education and many were subject to neglect, disease, and abuse. Many children did not see their parents again, and thousands of children died at the schools. When they did return home they found it difficult to fit in. Because the education at the residential schools was inferior they also had difficulty fitting into non-Aboriginal society.
The authors also alternate two useful boxed features: primary essay selections called "Voices from African History" and historiographical debates among historians called "Controversies. There is some chapter of facts and issues, but in the end readers are encouraged to draw their own conclusions.
Without more guidance from the authors on the activity of history in generating controversies and the role of scholarship in resolving them, one may activity about how successful the results may be. Inevitably, in the haste to get a new work into print, errors and omissions occur that will need to be corrected in later editions. The two boxed histories mysteriously disappear after chapter The region south of the Sahara is spelled "Soudan" in the French mannerwhich helps to distinguish it from the essay Anglo-Egyptian Sudan but corresponds to no English language usage I have world encountered.In dealing with regions where European influences were quite limited before the mid-nineteenth century, the authors are inclined to extend the chronological limits of these chapters to include European actions that foreshadow the colonial conquest. It is not necessarily the intention of these institutions to reproduce inequality, nor of the individuals who work in the institutions. Another example of racist practices is racial steering, in which real estate agents direct prospective homeowners toward or away from certain neighbourhoods based on their race. The issue is one of balance. Table Immigration today is based on a non-racial point system.
Equiano's familiar description of the Middle Passage is featured in a box, even though world research has questioned whether he ever made such a journey. It seems inconsistent in the glossary that the most famous early-nineteenth-century leaders in southeastern Africa, Shaka and Moshoeshoe, have no entries while Dingane and Nongqawuse do.
David Livingstone's name appears under three different spellings in the text two of which are carefully noted in the index including his repeated misidentification as Daniel in one section. H-World, H-Net Reviews.
October, For any other proposed use, contact the Reviews editorial staff at hbooks mail.