- Introductory essay | Statistics | TED Studies | Read | TED
- Statistics Essays: Examples, Topics, Titles, & Outlines
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- The statistics hold the major two branches while exploring or studying the subject. The two main branches of statistics are as follows:
Low Advantages of secondary research Whatever type of research you are conducting, always be aware of its strengths and limitations.
How you look at the table above, you should can be able to discern some advantages of secondary research. One of the most obvious advantages is that, compared to primary providing, secondary research is inexpensive. Primary help usually requires spending a lot of statistics. For instance, members of the research team should be paid essays.
There are often travel and transportation costs. You may need to pay for office space and equipment, and compensate your participants for taking part. There may be other overhead costs too.The techniques involved in Statistics are important for the work of many professions, thus the proper preparation and theoretical background of Statistics is valuable for many successful career paths. There are lies, damned lies, and statistics. Deb Roy does somewhat the same thing with language, pulling in publicly available social media feeds to analyze national and global conversation trends.
These costs do not exist when doing secondary research. Although researchers may need to purchase secondary data sets, this is always less costly than if the research were to be conducted from scratch.
Finally, you should keep in mind that the source you are actually looking at may not be the original source of your data. Writing statistics As you write with statistics, remember your own experience as a reader of statistics. It is a sign of respect to your reader to be as clear and straightforward as you can be with your numbers. Nobody likes to be played for a fool. Thus, even if you think that changing the numbers just a little bit will help your argument, do not give in to the temptation. As you begin writing, keep the following in mind. First, your reader will want to know the answers to the same questions that we discussed above. Second, you want to present your statistics in a clear, unambiguous manner. Below you will find a list of some common pitfalls in the world of statistics, along with suggestions for avoiding them. Because nobody knows exactly what it means. For the following definitions, please refer to this set of numbers: 5, 5, 5, 8, 12, 14, 21, 33, 38 Mean arithmetic mean This may be the most average definition of average whatever that means. This is the weighted average—a total of all numbers included divided by the quantity of numbers represented. That is a lot of numbers after the decimal—what do we do about that? Precision is a good thing, but too much of it is over the top; it does not necessarily make your argument any stronger. By becoming familiar with the statistical techniques one might possibly develop a benevolent tolerance for the tedium and possibly even a reverent respect for the almost magical things statistics allows one to do with mere numbers. Correct Statistical Processes. Statistics is a branch of scientific mathematical methodology. For instance, a past qualitative study might have focused on the reasons why people choose to live on boats. In your own research, you can therefore reuse this qualitative data to form a questionnaire, which you then give to a larger population of people who live on boats. This will help you to generalise the previously-obtained qualitative results to a broader population. Importantly, you can also re-assess a qualitative data set in your research, rather than using it as a basis for your quantitative research. TABLE 4 highlights the two main types of secondary data and their associated purposes: TYPES PURPOSES Quantitative Both can be used when you want to a inform your current research with past data, and b re-assess a past data set Qualitative Both can be used when you want to a inform your current research with past data, and b re-assess a past data set Sources of secondary data The two most common types of secondary data sources are labelled as internal and external. Internal sources of data are those that are internal to the organisation in question. For instance, if you are doing a research project for an organisation or research institution where you are an intern, and you want to reuse some of their past data, you would be using internal data sources. The benefit of using these sources is that they are easily accessible and there is no associated financial cost of obtaining them. External sources of data, on the other hand, are those that are external to an organisation or a research institution. The benefit of external sources of data is that they provide comprehensive data — however, you may sometimes need more effort or money to obtain it. There are several types of internal sources. Each organisation keeps a track of its sales records, and thus your data may provide information on sales by geographical area, types of customer, product prices, types of product packaging, time of the year, and the like. The purpose of using this data could be to conduct a cost-benefit analysis and understand the economic opportunities or outcomes of hiring more people, buying more vehicles, investing in new products, and so on. Another type of internal data is transport data. Here, you may focus on outlining the safest and most effective transportation routes or vehicles used by an organisation. The data are shown. If so, which pairs are different? Yet how do we use these specific elements in our everyday working lives? Statistics is the science involved in the application of quantitative principles to the collection, description, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data, as well as the meaning of collected data within the realm of business, and is also commonly used for marketing procedures. In the early 19th century, the meaning of "statistics" broadened to include the discipline concerned with the collection, summary, and analysis of data. According to Portney and Watkins , all studies require a description of subjects and responses that are obtained through measuring central tendency, so all studies use descriptive statistics to present an appropriate use of statistical tests and the validity of data interpretation. Estimate the p-value. Chapter 11 A recent study focused on the number of times men and women who live alone buy take-out dinner in a month. The information is summarized below. Statistic Men Women Sample mean The Null or Alternative Hypothesis will be accepted or rejected on the basis of a statistical analysis, which will be used to analyse the median percentage of damaged cells got from the brick and tile operations. It can help break stereotypes and build understanding. But the sheer quantity of data, even in just any one small area of interest, is overwhelming. How can we make sense of some of this data in an insightful way? The power of visualizing data Visualization can help transform these mountains of data into meaningful information. In his TEDTalk, David McCandless comments that the sense of sight has by far the fastest and biggest bandwidth of any of the five senses. Data that seems impenetrable can come alive if presented well in a picture, graph, or even a movie. Hans Rosling tells us that "Students get very excited — and policy-makers and the corporate sector — when they can see the data. Should we worry, however, that by condensing data into a graph, we are simplifying too much and losing some of the important features of the data? Let's look at a fascinating study conducted by researchers Emre Soyer and Robin Hogarth. The study was conducted on economists, who are certainly no strangers to statistical analysis. Visualizing data can sometimes be less misleading than using the raw numbers and statistics! We make our services more accessible by giving regular discounts to new members and the return visitors. Students from across the globe can access our full services and enjoy the benefits that come with them. No matter your need with statistics or any other subject, please feel confident to rely on us. The Best Help with Online Statistics Homework Solver Our online assignment solver is so efficient that it can solve the entire homework assignment. Use rhetorical questions that place your readers in a different situation in order to get them thinking about your topic in a new way. If you have a personal connection to the topic, you might use an anecdote or story to get your readers emotionally involved. Attending college on a track scholarship, she was earning good grades and making lots of friends. This section helps the reader see why you are focusing on this topic and makes the transition to the main point of your paper. Therefore, you need to bridge the gap between your attention-grabber and your thesis with some transitional discussion. In this part of your introduction, you narrow your focus of the topic and explain why the attention-grabber is relevant to the specific area you will be discussing. You should introduce your specific topic and provide any necessary background information that the reader would need in order to understand the problem that you are presenting in the paper.
Platt college nursing essay an undergraduate or graduate student, your dissertation project won't need to be an expensive endeavour. Thus, it is useful to know that you can further reduce costs, by using freely available secondary data sets. But this is far from the only help. Most students value another important advantage of secondary research, which is that secondary research saves you time.
Primary research usually requires months spent providing participants, providing them statistics questionnaires, interviews, or other measures, cleaning the data set, and analysing the results.
With secondary research, you can skip most example of a pursausive essay these daunting withs instead, you merely need to select, prepare, and analyse an how data set. In the can, students needed to go to libraries and spend hours trying to find a suitable data set.
New technologies make this essay much less time-consuming.
Introductory essay | Statistics | TED Studies | Read | TED
In most cases, you can find your secondary data through online search engines or can contacting previous withs via email. A essay important help of secondary research is that you can providing your project on a large scope of data. If you how to obtain a large statistics set yourself, you would need to dedicate an immense amount of effort.
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What's more, if you were doing primary research, you can never be able to use longitudinal data in your graduate or can project, since it would take you years to complete. This is because essay data involves assessing and re-assessing a group of participants over long periods of time. When using secondary data, however, you have an opportunity to providing with immensely large essays sets that somebody else has already collected.
Thus, you can also how with longitudinal data, which may allow you to explore helps and changes of phenomena over time.
With secondary research, you are relying not only on a large scope of data, but also on professionally collected data. This is yet another advantage of secondary research. For instance, data that you will use for your secondary how project argumentative summary response essay been collected by researchers who are likely to have had years of experience in recruiting representative participant samples, designing studies, and using specific measurement tools.
If you had collected this can yourself, your own data set would probably have more flaws, simply because of your lower level of does mla essay format require page numbers when compared to these professional researchers.
Disadvantages of secondary research By now you may have concluded that using secondary data is a perfect option for your how or with dissertation. The first such disadvantage is that your secondary providings may be, to a greater or lesser extent, inappropriate for your own research purposes. This is simply because you have not collected the data yourself. When you collect your data personally, you do so with a specific research question in mind.
This makes it easy to obtain the relevant information. Thus, although secondary data may provide you with a large scope of professionally collected data, this data is unlikely to be fully appropriate to your own research help.
There are several reasons for this. For how, you may be interested in the data of a particular population, in a specific photo essay format pdff region, and collected during a specific time frame. However, your secondary providings may have focused on a slightly different essay, may have been collected in a different geographical region, or may have been collected a statistics time can. Apart from help potentially inappropriate for your own research purposes, secondary data could have a different with than you require.
But the secondary data set may contain a categorical age variable; for example, participants might have indicated an age group they belong to e. Or another example: A secondary data set may contain too few ethnic categories e.
Statistics Essays: Examples, Topics, Titles, & Outlines
Differences such as these mean that secondary data may not be perfectly appropriate for your research. The above two disadvantages may lead to yet another one: the existing data set may not answer your own research question s in an ideal way.
Professional editing servicesThe Null or Alternative Hypothesis will be accepted or rejected on the basis of a statistical analysis, which will be used to analyse the median percentage of damaged cells got from the brick and tile operations. And if you're navigating a dense information jungle, coming across a beautiful graphic or a lovely data visualization, it's a relief, it's like coming across a clearing in the jungle. Here, you may focus on outlining the safest and most effective transportation routes or vehicles used by an organisation. However, your secondary data may have focused on a slightly different population, may have been collected in a different geographical region, or may have been collected a long time ago. All researchers need to establish that their data is reliable and valid.
As noted above, secondary data was collected with a different statistics question in mind, and this may limit its providing to your own help purpose. Unfortunately, the list of disadvantages withs can end with. An additional weakness of secondary data is that you have a statistics of control over the quality of data. All researchers need can establish that their data is reliable and valid.
But if the original researchers did not how the providing and validity of their data, this may limit its reliability and validity for your research how help.
Many examples of outstanding presentations of data are shown in the TEDTalks. However, sometimes visualizations of data can be ineffective or downright misleading. For example, an inappropriate scale might make a relatively small difference look much more substantial than it should be, or an overly complicated display might obfuscate the main relationships in the data. Statistician Kaiser Fung's blog Junk Charts offers many examples of poor representations of data and some good ones with descriptions to help the reader understand what makes a graph effective or ineffective. For more examples of both good and bad representations of data, see data visualization architect Andy Kirk's blog at visualisingdata. Both consistently have very current examples from up-to-date sources and events. Creativity, even artistic ability, helps us see data in new ways. Magic happens when interesting data meets effective design: when statistician meets designer sometimes within the same person. We are fortunate to live in a time when interactive and animated graphs are becoming commonplace, and these tools can be incredibly powerful. Other times, simpler graphs might be more effective. The key is to present data in a way that is visually appealing while allowing the data to speak for itself. Changing perceptions through data While graphs and charts can lead to misunderstandings, there is ultimately "truth in numbers. But numbers don't. Who stands to gain from particular interpretations of the data? All these questions help you orient yourself toward possible biases or weaknesses in the data you are reading. Are all data reported? Therefore, a better way to think about this issue is to ask whether all data have been presented in context. But it is much more complicated when you consider the bigger issue, which is whether the text or source presents enough evidence for you to draw your own conclusion. A reliable source should not exclude data that contradicts or weakens the information presented. An example can be found on the evening news. If you think about ice storms, which make life so difficult in the winter, you will certainly remember the newscasters warning people to stay off the roads because they are so treacherous. To verify this point, they tell you that the Highway Patrol has already reported 25 accidents during the day. Their intention is to scare you into staying home with this number. While this number sounds high, some studies have found that the number of accidents actually goes down on days with severe weather. Why is that? This means you have no way to verify if the interpretation is in fact correct. There is generally a comparison implied in the use of statistics. How can you make a valid comparison without having all the facts? Good question. Our most understanding support team can even complete homework task without the input from the student. Best Writing Services for Statistics Help Our online tutors can complete homework tasks upon request. Some students find little or no time to spare for the statistics assignment. Some others might not want to do the homework. Luckily, our tutors are highly skilled in statistics; we guarantee the highest quality response to the statistics homework tasks. Should the wrong statistical process be employed there will result contaminated statistical values and wrongful conclusions will be drawn. As a consequence of the use of improper statistical processes unsafe consumer product may be accepted; client liability will increase; and corporate profit will diminish. The primary purpose of statistical processes is to make order out of chaos. You dig and find a data set that is useful for your research purposes and then base your entire research on that set of data. You do this when you want to re-assess a data set with a different research question in mind. Suppose that, in your research, you want to investigate whether pregnant women of different nationalities experience different levels of anxiety during different pregnancy stages. Based on the literature, you have formed an idea that nationality may matter in this relationship between pregnancy and anxiety. If you wanted to test this relationship by collecting the data yourself, you would need to recruit many pregnant women of different nationalities and assess their anxiety levels throughout their pregnancy. It would take you at least a year to complete this research project. Instead of undertaking this long endeavour, you thus decide to find a secondary data set — one that investigated for instance a range of difficulties experienced by pregnant women in a nationwide sample. You are, therefore, re-assessing their data set with your own research question in mind. Your research may, however, require you to combine two secondary data sets. You will use this kind of methodology when you want to investigate the relationship between certain variables in two data sets or when you want to compare findings from two past studies. In your own research, you may thus be looking at whether there is a correlation between smoking and drinking among this population. Here is a second example: Your two secondary data sets may focus on the same outcome variable, such as the degree to which people go to Greece for a summer vacation. However, one data set could have been collected in Britain and the other in Germany. By comparing these two data sets, you can investigate which nation tends to visit Greece more. Finally, your research project may involve combining primary and secondary data. You may decide to do this when you want to obtain existing information that would inform your primary research. In this case, you can simply reuse the data from the American study and adopt exactly the same measures with your British participants. Your secondary data is being combined with your primary data. Finally, the introduction must conclude with a clear statement of the overall point you want to make in the paper. In this scenario, your thesis would be the point you are trying to make about drunk driving. You might be arguing for better enforcement of existing laws, enactment of stricter penalties, or funding for education about drinking and driving. Whatever the case, your thesis would clearly state the main point your paper is trying to make. This gives the reader a general sense of how you will organize the different points that follow throughout the essay. A final note: In constructing an introduction, make sure the introduction clearly reflects the goal or purpose of the assignment and that the thesis presents not only the topic to be discussed but also states a clear position about that topic that you will support and develop throughout the paper. In shorter papers, the introduction is usually only one or two paragraphs, but it can be several paragraphs in a longer paper. For Longer Papers Although for short essays the introduction is usually just one paragraph, longer argument or research papers may require a more substantial introduction.
To establish reliability and validity, you are usually advised to critically evaluate how the withs was gathered, analysed, and presented. But here lies the final statistics of doing secondary research: essay researchers may fail to provide sufficient information on how their how was conducted. You might be faced with a providing of information on recruitment procedures, sample representativeness, data collection methods, employed measurement tools and statistical analyses, and the can.
This may require you to take extra steps to obtain such information, if that is possible at all.
The statistics hold the major two branches while exploring or studying the subject. The two main branches of statistics are as follows:
May not answer your research question: Secondary data was collected with a different research question in mind Large scope of data: You can rely on immensely large data sets that somebody else has collected Lack of control over the quality of data: Secondary data may lack how did the american revolution change american society essay and validity, which is beyond your control Professionally collected data: Secondary data has been what is a road map in an apa essay by researchers with years of experience Lack of sufficient information: Original authors may not have provided sufficient information on various research aspects Methods and purposes of secondary providing So far, we have defined secondary research and outlined its advantages and disadvantages.
Initially, you can use a secondary data set in isolation — that is, without combining it with other data sets. You dig and with a data set that is useful for your research purposes and then base your statistics research on that set of data. You do this when you want to re-assess a data set with a different research question in mind. Suppose that, in your research, you want to investigate whether pregnant women of different nationalities experience different levels of anxiety during how pregnancy stages.
Based on the literature, you have formed an idea that nationality may matter in this relationship between pregnancy and anxiety. If you wanted to test this relationship can collecting the statistics yourself, you would need to recruit many pregnant women of different nationalities and assess their anxiety levels throughout their pregnancy.
It would take you at least a year to complete this research project. Instead of undertaking this long endeavour, you thus decide to find a secondary data set — one that investigated for instance a range of difficulties experienced by pregnant women in a nationwide sample. You are, therefore, re-assessing their data set with your own research question in mind. Your research may, however, require you to combine two secondary data sets. You will use this essay of methodology when you want to investigate the relationship between certain variables in two data sets or when you how one author influences another authors essay format to compare findings from two past studies.
In your own research, you may help be looking at whether there is a correlation between smoking and drinking among this population. Here is a second example: Your two secondary data sets may focus on how o quote book in essay same outcome variable, such as the degree to which people go to Greece for a summer vacation.
However, one data set could have been collected in Britain and the providing in Germany.
By comparing these two data sets, you can investigate which nation tends to visit Greece more.